"WAFER-NOLOGY" the Terminology of Wafers


Å -- Angstrom


AA -- Atomic Absorption.


AFM -- Atomic Force Microscopy


Al -- Aluminum symbol [Al] and atomic number [13]

(Melting Point of [933.25 K][660.25 °C][1220.45 °F]) Silvery white, Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth's crust. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth's solid surface. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments.

ALCVD -- Atomic Layer Chemical Vapor Deposition


ALD -- Atomic Layer Deposition


AMHS -- Automated Material Handling System

Any equipment that has a carrier transfer robot that moves cassettes, pods, FOUPS or FOSBs to and from a stationary equipment.
Such items are:
Storage Bays and Stocker systems
Interbay and Intrabay systems (OHT, OHS and track systems)
OHT-Overhead Hoist Transport Systems
Overhead Hoist Shuttle
AGV, RGVs, etc.

ANNEAL -- Annealing

A high - temperature processing step designed to repair defects in the crystal structure of the wafer or induce phase transformations.

APCVD -- Atomospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition


AR -- Aspect Ratio

The ratio of depth to width of a circuit feature such as a via or contact.

Argon -- (/ˈɑrɡɒn/ AR-gon) is a chemical element represented by the symbol Ar.

(Melting Point of [83.81 K][-189.19 °C][-308.54 °F])


A type of silicon deposited without a crystal structure.
In PV, amorphous silicon is an important thin film technology.
In LCD manufacturing, a-Si is the most widely used backplane type.

ASIC -- Application Specific Integrated Circuit.

ASTM -- American Standard Test Method.


BP -- Backside Polish (for use in wafers description).


BEOL -- Back End Of Line

BEOL is the 2nd portion of IC fabrication where the individual devices (transistors, capacitors, resistors, etc.) get interconnected with wiring on the wafer. BEOL generally begins when the 1st layer of metal is deposited on the wafer. It includes contacts, insulating layers (dielectrics), metal levels, and bonding sites for chip-to-package connections.

°C -- Centigrade (more commonly known as Celsius)


C -- Carbon symbol [C] and atomic number [6]

(Melting Point of [3773 K][3500 °C][6332 °F]) Carbon is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. There are three naturally occurring isotopes, with 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is radioactive, Decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years.Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity. Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. It is present in all known life forms, and in the human body carbon is the second most abundant element by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen.[16]

CD -- Critical Dimension

(CD is the minimum feature size (also called the critical dimension, target design rule). It is also common to write 2 times the half-pitch.)


cm -- Centimetre


CMOS -- Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor


CMP -- Chemical Mechanical Polishing/Planarization


CD -- Critical Dimension

(CD is the minimum feature size (also called the critical dimension, target design rule). It is also common to write 2 times the half-pitch.)

Co -- Cobalt s a chemical element with the symbol Co and atomic number 27.

(Melting Point of [1768 K][1495 °C][2723 °F]) Is a brittle, hard, lustrous, silver-gray tranisiton metal with magnetic properties similar to iron. It is found naturally only in a chemically combined form. Cobalt is used in the preparation of magnetic, wear-resistant and high-strength alloys. Cobalt silicate and cobalt(II) aluminate (CoAl2O4, cobalt blue) give a distinctive deep blue color to glass, smalt, ceramics, inks, paints and varnishes. Cobalt occurs naturally as only one stable isotope, cobalt-59. Cobalt-60 is a commercially important radioisotope, used as a radioactive tracer and in the production of gamma rays.

COPs -- Crystal Oriented Pits.

Believed to be formed during crystal growth. So far COPs and particles have been the two main defect types that can be differentiated with the current state-of-the-art light scattering inspection systems.

Cr -- Chromium is a chemical element with the symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

(Melting Point of [2130 K][1857 °C][3375 °F]) It is a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and a high melting point. It is odorless, tasteless and malleable. Chromium is regarded with its high corrosion resistance and hardness. Steel can be made highly resistant to corrosion and discoloration by adding chromium to form stainless steel. This and chrome plating (electroplating with chromium) are currently the highest-volume uses of the metal.

Cu -- Copper -- (/ˈkɒpər/ KOP-ər) is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29.

(Melting Point of [1357.6 K][1084.6 °C][1984.3 °F]) Copper is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, a building material, and a constituent of various metal alloys.

CVD -- Chemical Vapor Deposition


CZ -- Czochralski method of pulling single crystal

The majority of silicon crystals grown for device production are produced by the Czochralski process, (CZ-Si) since it is the cheapest method available and it is capable of producing large size crystals. However, single crystals grown by the Czochralski process contain impurities because the crucible containing the melt often dissolves. Historically, a number of methods have been used to produce ultra-high-purity silicon.
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